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[推荐]unit4 earthquake         ★★★
unit4 earthquake
unit4 earthquake
作者:刘慧莲 文章来源:本站原创 点击数: 更新时间:2010/11/30 17:17:11

 Unit4 Earthquakes

I  课标知识概览

 

 

重点词汇

burst (vi )爆裂,爆发 nation ( n )民族,国家 ruin (n, vt) 废墟;毁灭 injure ( vt ) 损害;伤害 destroy ( vt )破坏;毁坏 useless ( adj ) 无用的 shock (vt, n ) 震惊 rescue (n,vt) 营救

trap(n, vt) 使陷入困境;陷阱 bury (vt) 埋葬 shelter ( n)掩蔽 damage (n, vt) 损失;损害

frighten( vt ) 使惊吓;congratulation(n)祝贺; judgenvtn 裁判 v 判断;express(n, vt) n 快车,v 表达

 

 

重点词组

 

right away 马上      as if好像      at an end结束   

in ruins严重受损     a great number of 很多     

dig out掘出,发现 rescue sb from sth 从。。。中救起  the number of 。。。的数目 be proud of 为。。。而自豪 give sth out 放出,发出(光,热等)

 

 

功能

Talking about past experiences谈论过去的经历

Expressing thanks表达感谢

 

 

语法

The attributive clause(I)  that ,which ,who , whose

定语从句一:关系代词的用法

 

 

写作

Recountnewspaper article 如何写新闻报道

 

II     语言知识精讲

Section A Warming up .Pre-reading, Reading &Comprehending

1 Imagine your home begins to shake . 想象一下你的房子开始摇晃.(p25)

shake(v)-shook-shaken

(1)    vt ,vi 摇动;抖动

the whole house shakes when a train goes past.

(2)    vt (与某人)握手

shake hands with sb

shake sb by the hand =shake sb’s hand

(3)    vi 颤抖;发抖

shake with anger/fear/laughter气得/怕得/笑得发抖

2 For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell.三天来,村子里的井水升升降降,起起伏伏.(P26)

rise(vi)-rose-risen上升;起床;升起;提高;变得更加成功

The river has risen by several metres.河水上升了好几米。

He was accustomed to rising early.他习惯于早起。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.太阳在东边升起,在西边落下。

The price of gas rose.煤气价格上涨了。

She rose to power in the 1970s.她在20世纪70年代掌握了大权。

riseraise的区别:

rise为不及物动词,表上升,常用于日,月,物价,温度,河水,人的职位等。

raise为及物动词,表举起,提出,饲养,种植等。

He rose the baby from the bed.   raised

The child raised form the ground.  rose

3 In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst. 在市内,有些建筑物的水管都爆裂开来.(P26)

burst –burst-burst

(1) vi ,vt使爆裂,涨开

The balloon burst when I stuck it with a pin.我用针戳了一下,气球就炸了。

Don’t burst that balloon. 别把气球弄炸了。

(2) vi猛冲;突然出现

He burst into the room without knocking 他没敲门就闯进了屋子。

The sun burst through the clouds 太阳破云而出。

burst into + n

burst out doing 突然迸发

He burst into laughter. = He burst out laughter.他突然大笑起来。

He burst into tears. = He burst out crying. 他突然哭了起来。

burst(n)突然破裂;爆发

I was shocked by the burst of tyre.我被轮胎的爆裂声吓了一跳。

There was a burst of laughter in the next room.隔壁房间里爆发出一阵笑声。

常见搭配:

burst in 闯入

burst open 猛然打开

be bursting to do sth 急于做某事

be bursting with sth 涨满

4 But the one million people of the city , who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night .但唐山市的一百万居民几乎都没把这些情况当回事,当天晚上照常上床睡觉了.(P26)

think little of 不重视,不在乎

He thinks little of what his parents said.他对于父母的话毫不在意。

think 的常见短语:

think nothing of 认为。。。无所谓

think highly/well/much of ….. 对。。。评价高

think badly/ill/little of ………..对。。。。评价不高

think of ….as…………       把。。。。看作

think about                 考虑

think of                    想到

5 It seemed as if the world was at an end. 世界似乎到了末日.(P26)

as if 相当于as though

as if 的用法:

(1)look ,seem等系动词后面引导表语从句

She looks as if she were ten years younger.她看起来好像年轻了十岁。

It seems as if our team is going to win.看来我们的队要赢了。

(2) 引导方式状语的从句

She loves the boy as if she were his mother.她爱这个男孩,就好像她是他的母亲一样。

The child talked to us as if he were a grown-up.这个小孩讲起话来像个大人似的。

3as if 从句的语气和时态

as if 从句用陈述语气的情况

当说话者认为句子所述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实

It looks as if it is going to rain.看样子要下雨了。

He talks as if he is drunk.

从他谈话的样子看他是喝醉了

2 as if 从句用虚拟语气的情况

当说话人认为句子所述是不真实的或少有可能发生或存在的情况时

a 如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去时

He walks as if he were drunk.他走起路来像喝醉了一样。

He talks as if he knew where she was.他说话的样子,好像知道她在哪似的。

b如果从句表示与过去事实相反,谓语动词用过去完成时态。

He talks about Rome as if he had been there before.他谈起罗马来,好像他以前去过似的。

The girl listened as if she had been turned to stone.

那女孩倾听着,一动也不动,像已经变成了石头似的

c如果从句表示的与将来事实相反,谓语动词用would/could/might +动词原形

He opened his mouth as if he would say.

他张开嘴好像要说什么

It looks as if it might snow.

看来好像要下雪了

6 In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. 在可怕的15秒内,一座巨大的城市就成为了一片废墟.(P26)

lie(lay, lain)此处表示处于某种状态

lie/be in ruins 成为废墟

The village lay in ruins after the war.这个村庄在战争后成为废墟。

注意:

lie-lay-lain-lying  躺;位于

lie-lied-lied-lying 说谎

lay –laid-laid-laying 产卵

ruin( vt )毁坏;毁灭;使破产

The bad weather ruined our trip.
天气恶劣,破坏了我们的旅行。

The country was ruined by the war.

这个国家被战争给毁了。

作不可数名词表毁坏,毁灭。

The news meant the ruin of all our hopes.这个消息意味着我们的一切希望都破灭了。

 作废墟讲,通常用可数名词的复数。

We visited the ruins of the temple.我们参观了那个庙宇的遗迹。

知识拓展:

in ruins 毁坏;严重受损

be /lie in ruins 成为废墟

fall into ruin   衰落;败落

7 Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake. 三分之二的人在地震中或死或伤.(P26)

injure(vt) (尤其在事故中)受伤;损伤;损害,伤害(名誉,自尊等)

He injured his knee while playing football.他在踢足球的时候伤了膝盖。

He was injured in the accident.他在事故中受了伤。

This could seriously injure the company’s reputation..这可能会严重损害公司的名誉。

injured(adj) 受伤的

the injured受伤的人;伤员 作主语,谓语动词用复数。

The injured were sent to a nearby hospital.伤员被送到附近的一家医院。

injury (n) 伤害,损伤

辨析injure woundhurt

injure 一般指由于意外或事故受伤.

wound 指外伤,如刀伤,枪伤,剑伤。尤指在战斗、战争中的受伤。作为及物动词它的宾语是人,而不是受伤的部位。

hurt 是受伤的一般用语,既可以指肉体上的伤害,亦可以指精神上的伤害,另外hurt还可以作不及物动词,意为“疼痛”。

He can’t play today because he has injured his knee.他今天不能踢足球是因为他伤了膝盖。

He was wounded in the arm .他的胳膊受了伤

My leg still hurts.我的腿还在痛

His words hurt me. 他的话伤害了我

8 Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. 无论他们朝哪看,一切几乎都被毁了.(P26)

此处everywhere 用作连词,等于wherever, no matter where,引导让步状语从句。如:

①无论我在哪儿,我都看到一样的东西。

Everywhere I go , I find the same thing..

②无论你往哪儿看,你都会看到它。

You see it everywhere you look.

9 People were shocked. 人们震惊了.(P26)

shock( vt )使震惊

We were all shocked at the news of his death.

听到他的死讯,我们都感到震惊。

I was shocked to hear that he had resigned.

听到他辞职的消息,我感到震惊。

shock作可数名词表震惊,令人感到震惊的事。

The news of his death came as a shock to us all.

他的死讯传来,我们都感到震惊。

I got a terrible shock the other day.前两天,可把我吓坏了。

shock作不可数名词表休克。如:

She was taken to hospital suffering from shock.

她因为休克被送到医院。

He isn’t seriously injured but he is in a state of shock.

他的伤情不重,但处于休克状态。

shocked (adj) shocking(adj)

shocked 感到震惊的,表示人自身的感觉。

shocking 令人感到震惊的,它往往表示被修饰的人或物给别人的感觉。

The result of the game is shocking.

比赛结果令人震惊。

I am shocked at his change.

他的变化让我感到震惊。

10 it seemed as if the world was at an end. 世界似乎到了末日。(P26)

at an end 结束,终结

my holiday is at an end and I must go back to work tomorrow.

我的假期结束了,明天我就回去工作了。

I must warn you that my patience is almost at an end .

我必须警告你,我几乎是忍无可忍了。

拓展词汇:

at the end of  在。。。。末端/尽头

in the end 最后,终于

on end 连续的,不断地,直立地;竖着

from beginning to end 从头到尾

by the end of   到。。。。为止

make ends meet 使收支平衡

bring sth to an end =put an end to sth

come to an end 结束

end up with    以。。。结束

11 Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins. 一些救援人员和医生被困在了废墟下。(P26)

rescue作不可数名词表救援,营救

 We had given up hope of rescue at that time.

我们那时已经放弃了救援的希望。

rescue作可数名词表营救行动。如:

 The fisherman was saved in a daring sea rescue.

在一次惊心动魄的海上营救行动中,那名渔夫获救了。

rescue作动词,表营救

He rescued a child from drowning .

他救了一名落水儿童。

You rescued me from an embarrassing situation.

我正感到尴尬,你为我解了围。

固定搭配:

rescue sb from sb/sth 从。。。救

come/go to one’s rescue /去营救人

trap(n) 圈套,陷阱

The police set a trap to catch the thief. 警察设置了陷阱来抓小偷。

The deer was caught in our trap.那只鹿落入了我们的陷阱。

trap (vt)设圈套,设陷阱

They trapped her into telling where the gift was hidden.

他们设了圈套,让她说出了礼物藏在什么地方。

They were trapped in the burning building.

他们被困在燃烧着的楼房里面。

固定搭配:set a trap for sb 为某人设置陷阱

           trap sb into sth/doing sth

              诱骗某人做某事

12 All hope was not lost. 并不是所有的希望都破灭了。(P26)

本句是部分否定句,还可以说Not all hope was lost.英语中的all, both, each, every, everybody, everything, always, entirely等具有总括意义的代词,形容词或者副词与否定副词或否定词not连用,表示“不都,并非都”的意思。如:

All that glitters is not gold .

发光的并不一定都是金子

All these books are not popular with people.这些书并非全部都受人们欢迎。

I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with everything.我同意你所说的大部分内容,但不是所有内容。

相关的链接:

全部否定句型:no, none, never, nobody, nothing, neither, no one, nowhere等表示否定意义的词与肯定式谓语一起使用构成全部否定。

None of these things were mine这些事情都不是我的。

Neither answer is correct.两种答案都不对。

Nothing is right.什么都不好。

13 Hundreds of thousands of people were helped. 数十万的人得到了援助。(P26)

   thousands of 成千上万的

The oil spill endangered thousands of birds.

石油的泄漏危及到成千上万的鸟儿。

类似的表达:

hundreds of 数以百计的

millions of 数百万的

dozens of ,scores of几十,许多,大量

tens of thousands of 数以万计的

     thousands of 表示概数,当表示不确切的事物数量的,我们就用概数。表示法为:tens of/hundreds of/thousands of /millions of/scores of /dozens of +n,这些词的前面不能有具体的数词。

     thousand, hundred, million, billion, score, dozen之前有确定的数字表示时,词尾不加s

14 The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.救援部队组成小分队,将受困的人们挖出来,并将死者掩埋。 (P26)

dig out 发现,挖掘

More than ten people were dug out of the coal mine .

十多个被埋在煤矿里的人被挖掘出来了。

Why did you dig out these old books?

你为什么把那些旧书翻出来。

bury(vt)

     埋葬,安葬

Both his grandparents were buried here.他的爷爷奶奶都葬在这。

     埋藏、掩藏(感情)

He buried his face in his hands and wept.他双手掩面而泣

She has learned to bury her feelings.她学会了感情不外露。

知识拓展:

burial (n)埋葬;葬礼

bury sth in sth 使陷入;把。。。插入。。。

bury oneself in sth 专心致志于

be buried in sth埋头于,专心致志于

 

the dead 死者

the + adj 表示一类人,做主语,谓语用复数,如:

the living 活着的人the young 年轻人 the old 老人

the injured 受伤的人the blind 盲人

The old are taken good care of.老人被很好的照顾。

15 Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.救援人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者们盖起了避难所。(P26

shelter (n)

作不可数名词表居所;住处

Human beings need food, clothing and shelter.人类有衣、食、住的需求

作不可数名词还可表遮蔽;庇护;避难

take shelter from the wind/rain/weather躲避风//恶劣天气

作可数名词表庇护处;收容所

a bus shelter 候车亭   an air-raid shelter 防空洞   an animal shelter  动物收容处

shelter(vt) 保护;掩蔽

Trees shelter the house from the wind.树给房子挡住了风

16 Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide.老鼠跑出田地找地方躲藏。 (P26)

Looking for ……此处为现在分词做伴随状语

He worked into the night preparing a report for his boss.他工作到深夜为老板准备一份报告

Many people come to theme parks looking for thrills and entertainment..许多人到主题公园寻找刺激和娱乐。

17 Such a great number of people died. 大量的人死亡。(P26)

英语中表示许多的表达:

a large/great/good number of, a great/good many, a good few/quite a few修饰可数名词的复数

many a修饰单数可数名词,作主语谓语动词用单数

 

a great/good deal of , a great/large amount of , quite a little修饰不可数名词

 

a lot of/lots of, a great/large quantity of, quantities of, plenty of 既可修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词。

18 The number of people who were killed or injured reached more 400000.伤亡人数超过了40万。 (P26)

the number of a number of 用法区别:

the number of 意为。。。的数目,后接可数名词的复数。当它做主语时谓语动词用单数。

a number of 意思为“许多”相当于many,后接可数名词复数,做主语时谓语动词用复数。

A number of buildings were burnt down in the big fire .在这场大火中,许多房屋被烧毁。

The number of students in our class is 67.我们班的学生人数为67人。

 

Section B learning about language

19 damage(n)

作不可数名词表损坏,破坏  

The storm caused great damage to the town.。这场暴风雨对村庄造成了很大的损坏。

damages意为损害赔偿金

They intend to sue for damages. 他们打算起诉,要求赔偿损失

damage(vt)损害;伤害

Smoking seriously damages your health. 吸烟严重损害人体健康。

Many cars were damaged in the crash. 许多汽车在撞车事故中损坏了

辨析 ruin, destroy, damage

destroy 指彻底破坏以致不能或者很难修复

An atom bomb would destroy a city.  一颗原子弹能够摧毁一座城市。

damage 指价值,用途降低或外表损坏等,不一定全部破坏,损坏了还可以修复。

The flood did a lot of damage to the crops. 洪水对农作物造成了很大损害

ruin 多用与借喻中,有时泛指一般的弄坏了

The bad weather ruined our trip. 天气恶劣,破坏了我们旅行。

If she loses the court case it will ruin her. 如果败诉,她就完了。

20 give out (P28)

vi 用完;耗尽

After a month their food supplies gave out. 一个月以后他们的食物储备殆尽。

His patience finally gave out. 他最终忍无可忍了。

②停止运行;停止运转

One of the plane’s engines gave out in mid-Atlantic. 飞机飞到大西洋中部时一个发动机失灵了。

give sth out ①分发;散发

The teacher gave out the exam paper. 老师分发了考试试卷。

     发出;放出(热,光等)

The sun gives out light and heat. 太阳发出光和热。

相关词组:give up 放弃 give in 屈服;让步 give away 分发;赠送;泄露

21 It was a frightening night. 这是一个骇人的夜晚。(P28

 frighten (vt) 使惊吓;使惊恐

The sudden noise frightened us. 那突如其来的噪音吓了我们一跳。

I was frightened at the sight of the snake. 看到那条蛇时我被吓坏了。

知识拓展:

frighten sb/sth away/off=frighten sb/sth away from sth 把。。。吓走/吓跑

frighten sb into/out of doing sth 吓得某人做/不敢做某事

be frightened of doing sth 害怕做某事

be frightened to do sth 不敢做某事

be frightened to death   吓死

be frightened at sth     对。。。。感到害怕

辨析frightened frightening

frightened 受惊吓的,感到害怕,多指人自己的感受

frightening令人害怕的,指人或物具有令人害怕的性质

a frightened boy 受了惊吓的男孩

the frightening noise令人害怕的声音

frightened expression 惊恐的表情

 

Section C Using language

22 congratulation(n)庆贺;祝贺(常用复数形式;与介词on 搭配)(P30)

We are getting married !我们要结婚了

Congratulations !恭喜恭喜!

Congratulations on your exam results!祝贺你考出了好成绩!

I offered my congratulations on his success.我对他的成功表示了祝贺。

Congratulate celebrate 的区别:

Congratulate 意为祝贺、道贺,构成短语congratulate sb on sth/doing sth “因为某事情而向某人祝贺“

Celebrate的宾语通常为物,如:

He congratulated us on our getting married.他祝贺我们的新婚大吉。

We are celebrating our grandpa’s ninetieth birthday next week.我们下周将庆祝爷爷90岁生日。

22 Your speech was heard by a group of five judges.五个评委听了你的演讲。(P30)

judge(n)  法官;裁判(员)

The judge sentenced him to five years in prison.法官判他五年监禁

judge(vt)判断、判定;猜测(大小、数量等);裁判、评价

As far as I can judge, all of them are to blame.

依我看,他们都应当承担责任。

Judging by his last letter, they’re having a wonderful time.

从他信上看,他过的很愉快。

I judge him to be about 50.我估计他年纪在50岁左右。

She was asked to judge the essay competition.他被指定担任散文比赛的评委。

What gives you the right to judge other people?你有什么权利对别人评头论足。

知识拓展:

judgement (n)判断

judging by/from   从。。。判断 judge sb/sth to be/do 认为某人/某物

Don’t judge a book by its cover.

  勿以貌取人

pass judgement on sb

   对某人进行判决

注意:表示从。。。。判断时,用judging by/from

23 I would like to express my thanks to …who….(P30)

 express(v)

 ①表达;表露

Words can’t express how pleased I am.

言语无法表达我喜悦的心情

     代表,表示

The figures are expressed as percentages.

这些数字用百分比表示。

express(n)特快列车send goods by express特快货运

24Your parents and your school should be very proud of you.你的父母和学校因你而自豪。(P30)

   be proud of 意为为。。。而自豪

We are proud of being Chinese.我们作为中华子女而自豪。

短语链接:take pride in

          pride oneself on sth/doing sth 以。。。而自豪

25Next month the city will open a new park to honour those who died in the terrible disaster.下个月这个城市将开放一个新的公园来纪念那些在这场灾难中死去的人。(P30)

honour(v)尊敬;给以荣誉

He is honoured for his kindness and hard work among his workmates.他因善良和勤劳而受到同事们的尊敬。

Would you honour us by sharing our dinner together? 今晚你是否赏光与我们一道用餐?

honour作不可数名词,表尊敬,荣誉

Children should be taught to show honour to their elders.应该教育孩子尊重长者。

They stood in silence as a mark of honour to her.他们肃立以示对她的敬意。

honour作可数名词表带来荣誉的人或事

It was a great honour to be invited here today.今天承蒙邀请到此,深感荣幸。

He is an honour to our school.他是我们学校的光荣。

常见搭配:
in honour of
为向。。。表示敬意

show honour to sb向某人表示尊敬

a sense of honour 廉耻感

do sb an honour赏光;带来荣誉

on one’s honour以名誉担保

 

练习

单选

1 The earthquake made the city _______.

A destroying           B damaging

C a ruin               D in ruins

2 He was badly _______ in the accident.

A hurt                B hurts

C injured               D wounded

3 The teacher told me that the sun _____in the east.

A rises                B rose

C raised               D raises

4 The _____ film _______ the girl.

A frightening, frightened B frightened, frightening

C frightening, frightening D frightened, frightened

5 After the traffic accident, the police asked him to explain the  _______ to his car.

A damage B wound C ruin   D injury

6 It was supposed to be a surprise, but the children_____ the game.

A give in       B give away

C give out      D give up

7 Let me congratulate ______ you _____ the birth of your son.

A for, on               B to, on

C on, to                D /, on

8______his accent, he must be from Beijing.

A To judge from         B Judged by

C Judging by           D Judging through

9 They ____ little of me because I’ve nothing.

A consider             B believe

C judge               D think

10 ______ people are standing outside the office. ___  people there is at least 100.

A  A number of; A number of   B The number of , The number of

C A number of; The number of   D The number of; A number of

完成句子

11Mice came out of the fields _______________(寻找藏身之地).  look

12 it seemed as if the world ______________(到了末日) .  end

13_________________(根据他脸上的表情判断),his father must have blamed him. (judge)

14 In fifteen terrible seconds, a large city_______________(处于废墟中) .    ruin

15 ____________(许多人) died in the earthquake.   (number)

 

 

III 语法要点总结

定语从句----关系代词的用法

定语从句的概念

在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。引导定语从句的词有两种:关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose等,关系副词有where ,.why, when等。关系代词和关系副词有三个作用:1连接主从句,2指代先行词3在定语从句中做句子成分。定语从句一般位于先行词后面。

关系代词的用法

1 who的用法

who引导定语从句时,在从句中做主语或宾语,先行词是人。

This is the man who helped me out of trouble.

他就是那个帮我解决困难的人。

I don’t know the woman who you spoke to just now.

我不认识那个刚才你与她交谈的妇女。

[注意]who不能用于介词之后引导定语从句,此时须用whom代替who

 I need a friend with whom I can share my sorrow and happiness.

   我需要一个与我同甘共苦的患难朋友

2 whom的用法

whom引导定语从句时,在从句中做宾语,先行词是人。

The doctor whom/who you are looking for is in the room.

你找的那个医生在房间里。

She’s such a girl with whom you can talk freely.

她是一个你可以与之随便交流的姑娘。

[注意]whom 引导定语从句时不能用作从句的主语。

     whom 可以构成“介词+whom”引导定语从句

3whose 用法

whose引导定语从句时,在从句中做定语,意思为:“。。。的”,表示所属关系,其先行词可以是人,也可以是物。

He’s living in a room whose window faces the east.

他住在一个窗户朝东的房间里。

The boy whose spoken English is excellent draws our attention.

那个英语口语极好的男孩引起了我们的注意。

[知识拓展]whose+n”引导的定语从句相当于“the +n+of+which”引导的定语从句

Please pass me the book whose cover is yellow and black.

=please pass me the book, the cover of which is yellow and black.

请把那本封面是黑黄相间的书递给我。

4 that which的用法

thatwhich 在它们引导的定语从句中做主语或宾语,that的先行词既可以是人,也可以是物,which的先行词是物。

They finally reached a storehouse that/which used to be a church.

他们最后到了一个曾经是一个教堂的仓库那里。

I have been keeping the presents that/which he sent me.

我一直保存着他送给我的礼物

[注意]在下列情况whichthat 不能换用

1只用that不用which的情况:

     先行词是人时

We all like the new teacher that teaches us English.

我们都喜欢教我们英语的那位新老师

     先行词是不定代词all,few,little,much,many,some,something,nothing,anything,everything等时。

All that we have to do is to practise every day.

我们所必须做的是就是每天练习。

I ‘ll do everything that I can(do) to help you.

我将尽一切努力来帮助你

     当先行词被all, few, little, only, any, no, very等修饰时。

Every means that had been tried proved to be useless.

尝试过的每一种方法都被证明是无用的

I’ve read all the books that you gave me.

我已经读了你给我的所有的书。

     当先行词被序数词和形容词最高级修饰时

The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten.

我将永远不会忘记我的第一堂课。

It’s the most interesting book that I ‘ve ever read.

这是我曾经读过的最有趣的书

     当先行词既有人又有物时。

They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school.

他们谈起了他们所记得的学校里面的人和事。

     the way 做先行词且引导词在从句中做状语。

I hate the way (that) he talks to his wife.

我讨厌他和他妻子说话的方式。

     time做先行词,做“次数”讲,并且引导词在从句不做成分时。

This is the first time (that) I have been here.

这是我第一次来这儿

     当主语从句which开头的特殊疑问句时。

Which of the cows are those that produce the most milk?

哪些牛奶产奶最多?

2只用which 不用that的情况:

     which 做介词宾语并且与介词一起提到定语从句的句首时。

It’ll be something of which you’re proud.

这将是你为之自豪的东西

This is the very room in which I was born.

这正是我出生的那个房间。

     引导非限制性定语从句。

We all agreed to the plan, which we thought was of great value.

我们都同意这个计划,我们认为它很有价值。

     用于“介词+which+n”结构中引导定语从句,which 意为“这,那”在从句中作定语

He stayed in England for three years, during which time he learned English.

他在英国待了三年,在此期间他学会了英语

[知识拓展] which 引导非限制性定语从句时可用来代替整个主句的内容。

He’s always thinking highly of his own role in the work,which of course makes others unhappy.

他总是高度评价自己在这项工作中的作用,这当然会令别人不高兴。

5 as 的用法

1 在限制性定语从句中,常用于the same ….as, such…as, as…as, so….as.结构中。

Such books as I have read are classical.

我所读过的书都是些经典著作

I’d like to have the same book as you have.

我想有一本和你一样的书

the same……as the same …that 含义不同

This is the same book as I read last week.

这和我上周读的那本书是一样的

This is the same book that I read last week.

这就是我上周读的那本书

such…assuch…that的区别:

He is such a lazy man as nobody wants to work with.他是一个没有人想与之共事的懒人。(此句为定语从句,as指代man

He is such a lazy man that nobody wants to work with him.他是如此的懒以至于没有人想和他共事。(此句为such…that引导的结果状语从句,以为如此。。。以至于)

2 引导非限制性定语从句

在非限制性定语从句中,as作为关系代词代表整个主句。as引导的从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面,中间或者后面,一般用逗号与主句隔开,通常翻译为“如。。。一样,正如。。。。一样”

As is known to all, China has made great achievements in the last 20 years.众所周知,中国在过去的20年取得了巨大的进步。

The professor, as we had expected, gave us a wonderful speech.正如我们所期望的,教授给我们到来了精彩的演讲。

He is from the south , as I learn from his accent.他来自南方,这一点可以从他的口音中听出来。

as常见的短语:

as is the case像往常一样 as is well known to all众所周知 as is mentioned above 正如上面所提到的 as might be expected 正如所料 as has been said before 如前所说

练习

1 Look out! Don’t get too close to the house ____roof is under repair.

A whose   B which   C of which   D that

2Jim passed the driving test, _____ surprised everybody in the office.

A that   B which     C this      D it

3 The Beatles, _____many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.

A what   B that   C how    D as

4 He talked happily about the men and books _____ interested him greatly in the school.

A which   B who   C it    D that

5 They could only read such stories _____ had been rewritten in simple English.

A that   B which    C as      D what

6 The railway tunnel, through _____ the train goes, will be completed soon.

A which   B that   C it       D whom

7Finally the thief handed everything _____ he had stolen to the police.

A which B what C whatever   D that

8This is Mr Smith, ____I think has something interesting to tell you.

A who   B whom   C that   D /

9 I have many friends, _____ some are business men

A of them   B from which C who of D of whom

10 _____ is reported in the newspaper, talks between the two countries are making progress.

A It   B As   C That D What

 

写作指导

怎样写新闻报道

 

 新闻报道特点:

1.       主题突出.通常有比较固定的写作格式,如文首通常报道的地点或时间,第一句话常常是文章的导语,是对整篇文章的高度概括。通过这句话我们可以了解文章的大致内容和主题。

2.       标题醒目。好的标题能使读者在短时间内了解新闻的主要内容,引起阅读兴趣。

3.       正文简洁生动。避免使用被动语态,抓住一些显著的细节进行深入描写,语法要正确,准确选取动词及时态等。

4.       格式  通常采用经典的“倒金字塔”格式,由三个部分组成,即标题(title)导语(lead-in)和正文(body.

 

范文展示

假如你是21st Century 报的记者,请根据以下内容,给21st Century 报写一篇新闻报道。题目:China----The First Spacewalk

消息来源:路透社(Reuters

事件:2008928三位中国宇航员安全返回。黄昏时,飞船在内蒙古北部地区着陆。

翟志刚说:“这是一项光荣的任务,充满了挑战。”

历史意义:这次太空行走是中国成功举办奥运会后又一件大事,标志着中国成为世界上续美国、俄罗斯之后第三个能在太空行走的国家。

 

China----The First Spacewalk

[Reuters]------On Sunday, Sep.28,2008 three Chinese astronauts landed safely back on earth .The spacecraft touched down in the northern Inner Mongolian region at dusk.

“It was a glorious mission, full of challenges, ”Zhai  Zhigang said. This spacewalk puts China as only the third nation after the United States and Russia, which follows China’s successful hosting of the Olympics.

 

亮点赏析

1 内容简洁明了,同时涵盖了所有的要点。

2 内容严谨,条理清晰。

3 表达多样性体现的很充分。

 

 

 

                Unit4 单元知识与能力同步测试题

 

第一部分:听力(共两节,满分30分)

第一节(共5小题;每小题1.5分,满分75分)

听下面5段对话。每段对话有一个小题,从题中所给的A B C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

1. What's the most probable relationship between the two speakers?

A. They are host and guest.   B. They are waiter and customer.  C. They are husband and wife.

2. Where did this conversation take place?

A. At the hospital.         B. At the airport.         C. At the post office.

3. Why will the woman go to London?

A. To have a look at London.        B. To go with her friend.              C. To spend the weekend.

4. What's the woman's job?            

A. She is a saleswoman.       B. She is a waitress.      C. She is a hotel clerk.

5. How is the weather now?

A. It's snowing.             B.  It's raining.                C.  It's clear.

第二节(共15题;每小题1.5分,满分225分)

听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A B C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听第6段材料,回答678题。

6. Why was Paul angry with Jane?

A. She told the others about his salary. B. She told Mrs. Wallace his salary.

C. She always talks to everybody.

7. Why did Jane tell Mrs. Wallace the news according to her own explanation?

A. Because she thought it doesn't matter.

B. Because she knew everybody would know at last.

C. Because she got too excited and wasn't thinking.

8. What does Paul mean by "Everyone in this town got a big nose"?

A. People in this town have big noses.

B. People in this town are always eager to know about others' things.

C. People don't care about each other.

听第7段材料,回答91011题。

9. What is the man reading?

A. A magazine.               B. A Chinese play.         C. A newspaper.

10. Where are they going at the weekend?

A. Beijing Theater.        B. Beihai Park.               C. Beihai Cinema.

11. What are they going there for?

A. For a visit.             B. To see Beijing Opera.        C. To learn Beijing Opera.

听第8段材料,回答121314题。

12. Why didn't Mike take an examination yesterday?

A. Because he didn't want to do so.      B. Because he got sick.

C. Because he got the examination date wrong.

13. What did the professor permit Mike to do?

A. Have all examination at home.

B. Have an exam sometime later when he got better.

C. Have an exam next term.

14. Why didn't Mike drive his car?

A. Because the doctor told him not to.

B. Because he liked taking a walk.

C. Because he didn't think he was able to.

听第9段材料,回答151617题。

15. What does Rogers mean in this conversation?

A. Tom's friend.          B. Tom's teacher.   C. The name of a person.

16. What does Tom tell his mother in yesterday's letter?

A. He had made a new discovery. B. He had lost his new job.    C. He had just bought a car.

17. Why does Tom tell his mother about his job?

A. Because he doesn't want her to worry about his job.

B. Because he doesn't want her to worry about his life.

C. Because he doesn't want her to worry about his marriage.

听第10段材料,回答181920题。

18.  Where did the fire probably start?

A. On the first floor.   B. On the second floor. C. On the third floor.

19. When was the building built?

A. In 1930.                  B. In 1782.                    C. In 1718.

20. What was the building used as at the time of the fire?

      A. A history museum.   B. A hotel.             C. The old people's home.

第二部分:词汇知识运用(共两节,满分40分)

第一节:多项选择(共10小题;每小题1分,满分10分)

AB C D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

21 I could not fall asleep. Every night the house __ as heavy tracks went past.

A. struck    B .beat    C. hit    D. shook

22—We need an immediate reply.

  ---I see .I will send the paper to you __.

A. just now   B sooner or later  C right away  D .for a while

23 –Which of the two computer games did you prefer ?

  ---Actually I did not like ___.

A both of them   B. either of them  C .none of them  D. neither of them

24 Some parents are just too protective. They want to ___ their kids from every kind of danger, real or imagined.

A spot    B dismiss  C shelter  D distinguish

25 The scientist knew nothing about the matter, because he was always ___ himself in his study.

A burying  B devoting  C focusing  D concentrating

26 Yesterday he had an accident and his car was ___ . It needs repairing.

A damaged  B burnt  C destroyed  D ruined

27 The firemen ______ the boy from the burning house.

A. rescued    B delivered   C took D relieved

28 On seeing Jay Chow appeared on the stage, the audience ___ cheering.

A burst on   B burst into   C burst in D burst out

29 The lawyers frightened the old lady ___ the paper.

A to sign     B into signing   C sign D signed

30 We held a ceremony ___ those who died in the earthquake.

    A in honor of B in place of C in favor of D in the way of

第二节:完形填空(共2 0小题;每小题1.5分,满分30分)

阅读下面短文,从短文后所给各题的四个选项(AB C D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。

  Do you know what kind of things the young people are reading? More and more __31 and parents have noticed another kind of pollution, which came from the printed paper ___32__ on streets.

  These printed things ___33__ newspapers but have hardly anything to do with __34__, you can only find reading materials badly made up there—some are too strange for anyone to __35__; others are frightening stories of something __36__ .However, many of the young readers are getting interested in such __37__ reading, which __38__ them what they should pay for their breakfast and brings them nightmares(噩梦)and immoral(邪恶)ideas in __39__. Homework was left __40__; daily games were lost.

  These sellers shout on streets selling their papers well. The writers, publishers and printers, __41__ they are, we never know, are __42__ their silent money.

  The sheep-skinned wolf's story seems to have been forgotten once again Why not __43__this kind of thing? Yes, both teachers and parents have asked each other for more strict control of the young readers. __44__, the more you want to forbid it, the more they want to have a look at it. __45__ you may even find out several children, driven by the curious natures, __46__ one patched paper, which has traveled from hand to hand.

  It really does __47__to our society. It has already formed a sort of moral pollution. The __48__ teachers and parents need more powerful support in their protection of the young generation. At the same time the young __49__ need more interesting books to help them __50__ those ugly papers.

  31A. teachers      B. writers       C. readers       D. students

  32A. found      B. sold     C. printed     D. put

  33A. depend on    B. work out    C. look like    D. act as

   34A. it           B. them          C. children       D. young people

  35A. understand    B. think     C. believe      D. know

  36. A. more important   B. still worse     C. even better    D. very good

  37A. poisonous   B. wonderful   C. interesting     D. useful

  38A. takes     B. spends     C. costs           D. pays

  39A. use      B. sight     C. common    D. return

  40A. undone    B. unknown    C. much     D. less

  41A. who     B. what      C. whoever    D. whatever

  42A. using     B. making        C. spending    D. wasting

  43A. stop     B. forbid          C. separate     D. leave

  44A. Happily    B. Luckily         C. Unfortunately D. Badly

  45A. Seldom    B. Always        C. Hardly      D. Sometimes

  46A. take     B. share          C. get          D. hold

  47A. harm     B. good          C. favour     D. wrong

   48A. worried    B. puzzled       C. surprised    D. disappointed

  49A. writers    B. teachers      C. parents     D. readers

50A. get off    B. come into     C. break down   D. get rid of

第三部分:阅读理解(共20小题,每小题2分,满分40分)

阅读下面短文,从短文后所给各题的四个选项(AB C D)中,选出最佳选项。

 

A

There are labels(标签) inside all new clothes The labels tell you how to take care of your clothes The label for a shirt may tell you to wash it in warm water A sweater label may tell you to wash in cold water The label on a coat may say “dry clean only”, for washing may ruin this coat If you do as the directions (说明)on the label, you can keep your clothes looking their best for a long time

Many clothes today must be dry cleaned Dry cleaning is expensive When buying new clothes, check to see if they will need to be dry cleaned You will save money if you buy clothes that can be washed

You can save money if you buy clothes that are well made Well-made clothes last longer They look good even after they have been washed many times Clothes that cost more money are not necessarily(不一定) better made They do not always fit better Sometimes less expensive clothes look and fit better than more expensive clothes

51If you want to save money, you had better buy clothes that __

Adon’t fit you           Bdon’t last long

Cneed to be dry cleaned    Dcan be washed

52We learn from the passage that cheaper clothes __

Aare always worse made         Bmust be dry cleaned

Ccan not be washed            Dcan sometimes fit you better

53The best title for the passage should be __

ABuy Less Expensive Clothes

BTaking Enough Money When Shopping

CBeing a Clever Clothes Shopper

DChoosing the Labels inside New Clothes

54. “Well-made clothes last longer” means ___.

A. Clothes that are well made will be the last for you to choose.

B. Clothes that are well made are mostly longer than cheap ones.

C. You can wear well-made clothes for a longer time.

D. You can wear well-made clothes for a long time if you wear them at last.

 

B

A Narrow Escape

Shortly after the war, my brother and I were invited to spend a few days’ holiday with an uncle who had just returned from abroad He had rented () a cottage in the country, although he hardly spent much time there We understood the reason for this after our arrival: the cottage had no comfortable furniture in it. Many of the windows were broken and the roof leaked (漏水), making the whole house wet

On our first evening, we sat around the fire after supper listening to the stories our uncle told of his many adventures in distant countries I was so tired after the long train journey that I would have preferred to go to bed; but I could not bear to miss any of my uncle’s exciting stories, He was just in the middle of describing a rather terrifying experience he had once had when there was a loud crash(倒塌声) from the bedroom above, the one where my brother and I were going to sleep

When we got to the top of the stairs and opened the bedroom door, a strange sight met our eyes A large part of the ceiling had fallen right on to the pillow(枕头)of my bed 

55The uncle disliked the rented cottage for the reason that _____

AThere were no beds in it

BThe windows were broken and the roof leaked

       CIt was too old for him to live in

DIt was very rainy in the area

56.The writer was attentively(注意地)listening to a story _____

Awhich his uncle read in a book

Bwhich was very funny

Cwhen his brother cried for being afraid

Dwhen he heard a loud crash from the bedroom

57If the writer had not been able to stay up late, _____

Ahis uncle would have stopped telling stories

Bhis uncle would have been very sorry

Che would have been injured or killed

Dhis brother wouldn’t have been, either

58. A narrow escape means ___.

A. A person runs away from a danger through a narrow door.

B. A person escapes a danger by luck.

C. A person escapes a danger easily.

D. A person runs away from a danger easily.

 

                               C

I suddenly heard an elephant crying as though frightened. Looking down I immediately recognized that something was wrong and ran down to the edge of the near bank .There I saw Ma Shwe with her three-month-old calf struggling in the fast-rising water and it was a life-and-death struggle. Her calf was floating and screaming with fear. Ma Shwe was as near to the far bank as she could get, holding her whole body against the rushing water and keeping the calf pressed against her huge body . Every now and then the rushing water would sweep the calf away.

There was a sudden rise in the water and the calf was washed clean over the mother’s body and was gone .Ma Shwe turned quickly to reach it and pressed the calf with her head and trunk(象鼻)against the rocky bank. Then with a huge effort she picked it up in her trunk and tried until she was able to place it on a narrow shelf of rock

Just at this moment she fell back into the river. If she were carried down it would be certain death. I knew as well as she did ,that there was one spot(地点)where she could get up the bank  but it was on the other side from where she had put her calf.

While I was wondering what I could do next, I heard the sound of a mother’s love. Ma Shwe had crossed the river and got up the bank and was making her way back as fast as she could ,roaring(吼叫)all the time, but to her calf it was music.

59The moment the author got down to the river bank he saw______.

AThe calf was about to fall into the river

BMa Shwe was placing the calf on the rock

CThe calf was washed away by the rising water

DMa Shwe was holding the calf against the rushing water

60.How did Ma Shwe manage to save her calf from the fast-flowing water?

ABy putting it on a safe spot

BBy pressing it against her body

CBy taking it away with her

DBy carrying it on her back

61How did the calf feel about the mother elephant’s roaring?

AIt was a great comfort      BIt was a sign of danger

CIt was a call for help       DIt was a musical note 

62What can be the best title for the text?

AA Mother’s Love           BA Brave Act

CA Deadly River            DA Matter of Life and Death

 

                                D

Old wives tales” are beliefs passed down from one generation to another, For example, most of us remember our patents’ telling us to eat more of certain foods or not to do certain things. Is there any truth in these teachings? Some of them agree with present medical thinking, but others have not passed the test of time 21世纪教育网

Did your mother ever tell you to eat your carrots because they are good for your eyes? Scientists now report that eating carrots can help prevent a serious eye disease called macular degeneration Eating just one carrot a day can reduce the possibility of getting this disease by 40%. Garlic(蒜)is good for you, tooIt can kill the type of virus that causes colds. 21世纪教育网

Unfortunately, not all of Mom’s advice passed the test of medical studies. For example, generations of children have been told not to go swimming within an hour after eating. But research suggests that there is no danger in doing so. Do sweets cause tooth problems? Well, yes and no. sticky sweets made with grains tend to cause more problems than sweets made with simple sugars.  21世纪教育网

Even though science can tell us that some of our traditional beliefs don’t hold water, there is still a lot of truth in the old wives’ tales, After all, much of this knowledge has been accumulated (积累) from thousands of years of experience in family health care. We should respect this body of knowledge even as we search for clear scientific support to proven it true or false 21世纪教育网

63. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text           21世纪教育网

A, Eating garlic is good for our eyes 21世纪教育网

B, Sticky sweets are damaging to our teeth 21世纪教育网

C, Swimming after a meal is dangerous 21世纪教育网

D, Carrots prevent people from catching colds 21世纪教育网

64. The author develops the third paragraph mainly--------           21世纪教育网

A. by cause and effects            B. by order in space 21世纪教育网

C. by order in time      D. by examples 21世纪教育网

65. The phrase “hold water” in the last paragraph most probably means“   ” 21世纪教育网

A. to be believable    B. to be valuable     C. to be admirable    D. to be suitable 21世纪教育网

66. What is the author’s attitude toward “old wives’ tales” in the text? 21世纪教育网

  A. Subjective    B. Objective     C. Dissatisfied     D. Curious 21世纪教

 

E

    Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the time; if corrected too much, he will stop talking. He notices a thousand times a day the difference between the language he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his language like other people’s. In the same way, children learn to do all the other things without being taught to walk, run, climb, whistle, ride a bicycle…They compare their own performances with those of more skilled people, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance to find out his mistakes and correct them for himself. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought that he would never notice a mistake. If it is a matter in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time in such routine(日常的) work? Our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can’t find the way to get the right answer. Let the children learn what all educated persons must some day learn, how to measure their own understanding, how to know what he does not know.

 

67. According to the passage, the best way for children to learn things is by_____.

A .listening to skilled people’s advice.           B asking older people many questions

C making mistakes and having them corrected            D doing what other people do

 

68. Which of the following does the writer think teachers should NOT do?.

A Give children correct answers                 B Allow children to mark mistakes.

C Point out children’s mistakes to them.      D Let children mark their own work

 

69.The passage suggests that learning to speak and learning to ride a bicycle are____

A different from learning other skills            B the same as learning skills

C more important than other skills               D not really important skills

 

70.The title of this passage could probably be_____

A Let Us Teachers Stop Work                            B Let Us Make Children Learn

C Let Children Correct Their Exercises        D Let Children Learn by Themselves

 

第四部分:书面表达(共两节,满分40分)

第一节:完成句子(共10小题;每小题1.5分,满分15分)

      阅读下列各个小题,根据括号内的汉语提示,用句末括号内的英语单词完成句子。

71 _________ ( 众所周知), Taiwan belongs to China.   ( know )

72 With rich natural resources, the people ____________ ( 我曾经在他们的村子教书 ) are now living a happy life.  ( teach )

73 It is useless _____________( 和他争论). ( argue )

74 The house was on fire. Many people ____________(被困在) it . ( trap )

75 He was often late for school, _____________________(令老师很生气). ( angry )

76 He often helps others, so he ______________( 得到了大家的高度评价). ( think )

77 ________________________________( 无论人们朝哪里看), nearly everything was destroyed. ( everywhere )

78 We held a party ________________(为了欢迎他). ( honour )

79 We should give our seats to ______ (老人). ( old )

80 He often wins scholarships at the college, so his parents ______________ (因他而自豪). (proud)

 

第二节:短文写作(共一题;满分25分)

  假如你是一名记者,请根据以下提示,用英语向China Daily写一篇有关台湾大地震的报道。

  时间:1999921日凌晨147

  震级:7.6

  人员损失:到当晚22时,已有1670人死亡,3924人受伤,2000多人被困,数百人失踪,许多人无家可归。

  设施破坏:停电,房屋桥梁倒塌,交通受阻。

  严重性:是台湾百年未遇的强烈地震。

  注意:1.词数在100左右。

  2.生词提示:magnitude 7.6 7.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                           Unit5答案与解析

 

前面知识点部分答案

单项选择:

15 DCAAA  6—10 BDCDC

完成句子:

1 looking for places to hide

2 was at an end

3 Judging by the look on his face

4 lay in ruins

5 A large number of

 

二语法部分答案

1—5 ABDDC 6—10 ADADB

 

三单元知识与能力同步测试题答案

 

15. BACCC  610. BCBCB  1115. BBBCC  16.20 CBCCC

21—25 DCBCA 26—30AADBA 31--35 ABCBC 36—40 BACDA 41--45 CBBCD 46—50 BAADD 51—55 DDCCB 56—60 DCBDA 61—65 AABDA 66—70 BCCBD

 

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